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Authors: Charlie Leduff

Tags: #Non-Fiction, #History, #Sociology, #Biography, #Politics

Detroit: An American Autopsy

BOOK: Detroit: An American Autopsy
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A
LSO BY
C
HARLIE
L
E
D
UFF

US Guys

Work and Other Sins

DETROIT

AN AMERICAN AUTOPSY

CHARLIE LEDUFF

THE PENGUIN PRESS

NEW YORK

2013

THE PENGUIN PRESS

Published by the Penguin Group

Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street New York, New York 10014, U.S.A.

Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4P 2Y3 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.)

Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England

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Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices:

80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England

First published in 2013 by The Penguin Press,

a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

Copyright © Charles LeDuff, 2013

All rights reserved

“Evidence Detroit,” photographs by Danny Wilcox Frazier

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

LeDuff, Charlie.

Detroit : an American autopsy / Charlie LeDuff.

p. cm.

ISBN 978-1-59420-534-7

eBook ISBN 978-1-101-60588-2

1. Detroit (Mich.)—Economic conditions. 2. Detroit (Mich.)—Social conditions. 3. Detroit (Mich.)— Politics and government. 4. LeDuff, Charlie. 5. Journalists—Michigan—Detroit—Biography. I. Title.

HC108.D6L44 2013

977.4'34044—dc23

2012030924

Book Design by Claire Naylon Vaccaro

No part of this book may be reproduced, scanned, or distributed in any printed or electronic form without permission. Please do not participate in or encourage piracy of copyrighted materials in violation of the author’s rights. Purchase only authorized editions.

Penguin is committed to publishing works of quality and integrity. In that spirit, we are proud to offer this book to our readers; however, the story, the experiences, and the words are the author’s alone.

For Amy and Claudette

Detroit turned out to be heaven,

but it also turned out to be hell.


M
ARVIN
G
AYE

A
CKNOWLEDGMENTS

Corn does not grow alone. And books do not write themselves. I’d like to give thanks to the people of Detroit, Michigan, U.S.A.—especially those who shared their stories here. You are a proud nation.

My mother, Evangeline, who taught me my first words, told me our family stories and showed me how to write my name. You are the rock.

My brothers Jim, Frank and Bill. Without you, I would have grown up a weakling.

My wife, Amy, who endures the journey—both high and low. Thanks for holding my hand, baby.

Some material in this book appeared in different form in both the
Detroit News
and
Mother Jones
magazine. My gratitude to Jon Wolman, publisher and editor of the
News
, as well as Gary Miles and Walter Middlebrook, for bringing me home.

My colleagues at the
News
—especially Max Ortiz and Elizabeth Conley for their photographic eyes and friendship on all those cold nights. Bob Houlihan, Paul Egan, Joel Kurth, George Hunter, Doug Guthrie and Laura Berman—for their generosity and outlook
.

Clara Jeffery at
Mother Jones
: thank you for helping me see it.

Scott Burgess wrote for me a long description of the goings-on at the Los Angeles Auto Show, much of which is quoted here. My appreciation for the assist and the insight.

Todd Schindler provided a keen eye and solid shoulder when things got tough. Bob Paris came up with the title for the book.

Sloan Harris and Ann Godoff. Without their strong arms, this boat would have sunk.

Danny Frazier. Remember what the sign says: Stay Inn.

Thanks to the Mongo brothers: Adolph, Larry and Skip. Your pool runs deep.

The men and women of the Detroit Police Department, especially Mike Carlisle, Tony Wright and Mike Martel, and all those in blue whose names I cannot print. You know why. Respect.

The men and women of the Detroit Fire Department: Mike Nevin, Wisam Zeineh and the crazy sons of bitches who do the job because the job’s got to be done.

Every teacher who helps and every honest politician who serves.

Claudette: remember where you come from, girl. Sometime in her life a bird needs to circle home.

P
ROLOGUE

I
REACHED DOWN
the pant cuff with the eraser end of my pencil and poked it. Frozen solid. But definitely human.

“Goddamn.”

I took a deep breath through my cigarette. I didn’t want to use my nose. It was late January, the air scorching cold. The snow was falling sideways as it usually did in Detroit this time of year. The dead man was encased in at least four feet of ice at the bottom of a defunct elevator shaft in an abandoned building. But still, there was no telling what the stink might be like.

I couldn’t make out his face. The only things protruding above the ice were the feet, dressed in some white sweat socks and a pair of black gym shoes. I could see the hem of his jacket below the surface. The rest of him tapered off into the void.

In most cities, a death scene like this would be considered remarkable, mind-blowing, horrifying. But not here. Something had happened in Detroit while I was away.

* * *

I had left the city two decades earlier to try to make a life for myself that didn’t involve a slow death working in a chemical factory or a liquor store. Any place but those places.

But where? I wandered for years, working my way across Asia, Europe, the Arctic edge working as a cannery hand, a carpenter, a drifter. And then I settled into the most natural thing for a man with no real talents.

Journalism.

It required no expertise, no family connections and no social graces. Furthermore, it seemed to be the only job that paid you to travel, excluding a door-to-door Bible salesman. Nearly thirty years old, I went back to school to study the inverted pyramid of writing. I landed my first newspaper job with the
Alaska Fisherman’s Journal,
where I wrote dispatches in longhand on legal pads and mailed them back to headquarters in Seattle.

So I went out into the Last Frontier with my notepad and a tent and wrote what I saw: stuff about struggling fishermen, a mountain woman who drank too much and dried her panties on a line stretched across the bow of her boat, Mexican laborers forced to live in the swamps, a prince who lived under a bridge, a gay piano man on a fancy cruise liner. People managing somehow. My kind of people. The job suited me.

Working off that, I tried to land a real job but couldn’t find one. The
Detroit Free Press
didn’t want me. Not the
San Francisco Chronicle
. Not the
Oakland Tribune
. I was thinking about returning to the Alaskan fishing boats until a little Podunk paper called me with an offer of a summer internship—the
New York Times
.

Luck counts too.

I ended up working at the Gray Lady for a decade, sketching the lives of hustlers and working stiffs and firemen at Ground Zero. It was a good run. But wanderlust is like a pretty girl—you wake up one morning, find she’s grown old and decide that either you’re going to commit your life or you’re going to walk away. I walked away, and as it happens in life, I circled home, taking a job with the
Detroit News
. My colleagues in New York laughed. The paper was on death watch. And so was the city.

It is important to note that, growing up in Detroit and its suburbs, I can honestly say it was never that good in the first place. People of older generations like to tell me about the swell old days of soda fountains and shopping stores and lazy Saturday night drives. But the fact is Detroit was dying forty years ago when the Japanese began to figure out how to make a better car. The whole country knew the city and the region was on the skids, and the whole country laughed at us. A bunch of lazy, uneducated blue-collar incompetents. The Rust Belt. The Rust Bowl. Forget about it. Florida was calling.

No one cared much about Detroit until the Dow collapsed in 2008, the economy melted down and the chief executives of the Big Three went to Washington, D.C., to grovel. Suddenly the eyes of the nation turned back upon this postindustrial sarcophagus, where crime and corruption and mismanagement and mayhem played themselves out in the corridors of power and on the powerless streets. Detroit became epic, historic, symbolic, hip even. I began to get calls from reporters around the world wondering what the city was like, what was happening here. They wondered if the Rust Belt cancer had metastasized and was creeping toward Los Angeles and London and Barcelona. Was Detroit an outlier or an epicenter? Was Detroit a symbol of the greater decay? Is the Motor City the future of America? Are we living through a cycle or an epoch? Suddenly they weren’t laughing out there anymore.

Journalists parachuted into town. The subjects in my
Detroit News
stories started appearing in
Rolling Stone
and the
Wall Street Journal
, on NPR and PBS and CNN, but under someone else’s byline. The reporters rarely, if ever, offered nuanced appraisals of the city and its place in the American landscape. They simply took a tour of the ruins, ripped off the local headlines, pronounced it awful here and left.

And it is awful here, there is no other way to say it. But I believe that Detroit is America’s city. It was the vanguard of our way up, just as it is the vanguard of our way down. And one hopes the vanguard of our way up again. Detroit is Pax Americana. The birthplace of mass production, the automobile, the cement road, the refrigerator, frozen peas, high-paid blue-collar jobs, home ownership and credit on a mass scale. America’s way of life was built here.

It’s where installment purchasing on a large scale was invented in 1919 by General Motors to sell their cars. It was called the Arsenal of Democracy in the 1940s, the place where the war machines were made to stop the march of fascism.

So important was the Detroit way of doing things that its automobile executives in the fifties and sixties went to Washington and imprinted the military with their management style and structure. Robert McNamara was the father of the Ford Falcon and the architect of the Vietnam War. Charlie Wilson was the president of General Motors and Eisenhower’s man at the Pentagon, who famously said he thought that “what was good for our country was good for General Motors, and vice versa.”

If what Wilson said is true, then so too must be its opposite.

Today, the boomtown is bust. It is an eerie and angry place of deserted factories and homes and forgotten people. Detroit, which once led the nation in home ownership, is now a foreclosure capital. Its downtown is a museum of ghost skyscrapers. Trees and switchgrass and wild animals have come back to reclaim their rightful places. Coyotes are here. The pigeons have left in droves. A city the size of San Francisco and Manhattan could neatly fit into Detroit’s vacant lots, I am told.

Once the nation’s richest big city, Detroit is now its poorest. It is the country’s illiteracy and dropout capital, where children must leave their books at school and bring toilet paper from home. It is the unemployment capital, where half the adult population does not work at a consistent job. There are firemen with no boots, cops with no cars, teachers with no pencils, city council members with telephones tapped by the FBI, and too many grandmothers with no tears left to give.

But Detroit can no longer be ignored, because what happened here is happening out there. Neighborhoods from Phoenix to Los Angeles to Miami are blighted with empty houses and people with idle hands. Americans are swimming in debt, and the prospects of servicing the debt grow slimmer by the day as good-paying jobs continue to evaporate or relocate to foreign lands. Economists talk about the inevitable turnaround. But standing here in Michigan, it seems to me that the fundamentals are no longer there to make the good life.

Go ahead and laugh at Detroit. Because you are laughing at yourself.

In cities and towns across the country, whole factories are auctioned off. Men with trucks haul away tool-and-die machines, aluminum siding, hoists, drinking fountains. It is the ripping out of the country’s mechanical heart right before our eyes.

A newly hired autoworker will earn $14 an hour. This, adjusted for inflation, is three cents
less
than what Henry Ford was paying in 1914 when he announced the $5 day. And, of course, Ford isn’t hiring.

Come to Detroit. Drive the empty, shattered boulevards, and the decrepitude of the place all rolls out in a numb, continuous fact. After enough hours staring into it, it starts to appear normal. Average. Everyday.

And then you come across something like a man frozen in ice and the skeleton of the anatomy of the place reveals itself to you.

The neck bone is connected to the billionaire who owns the crumbling building where the man died. The rib bones are connected to the countless minions shuffling through the frostbitten streets burning fires in empty warehouses to stay warm—and get high. The hip bone is connected to a demoralized police force who couldn’t give a shit about digging a dead mope out of an elevator shaft. The thigh bone is connected to the white suburbanites who turn their heads away from the calamity of Detroit, carrying on as though the human suffering were somebody else’s problem. And the foot bones—well, they’re sticking out of a block of dirty frozen water, belonging to an unknown man nobody seemed to give a rip about.

We are not alone on this account. Across the country, the dead go unclaimed in the municipal morgues because people are too poor to bury their loved ones: Los Angeles, New York, Chicago. It’s the same. Grandpa is on layaway while his family tries to scratch together a box and a plot.

This is not a book about geopolitics or macroeconomics or global finance. And it is not a feel-good story with a happy ending. It is a book of reportage. A memoir of a reporter returning home—only he cannot find the home he once knew. This is a book about living people getting on with the business of surviving in a place that has little use for anyone anymore except those left here. It is about waking up one morning and being told you are obsolete and not wanting to believe it but knowing it’s true. It is a book about a rough town and a tough people during arguably some of the most historic and cataclysmic years in the American experience. It is a book about family and cops and criminals and factory workers. It is about corrupt politicians and a collapsing newspaper. It is about angry people fighting and crying and snatching hold of one another trying to stay alive.

It is about the future of America and our desperate efforts to save ourselves from it.

At the end of the day, the Detroiter may be the most important American there is because no one knows better than he that we’re all standing at the edge of the shaft.

BOOK: Detroit: An American Autopsy
9.61Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
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