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Authors: Robin DiAngelo

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20.
James Baldwin, response to Paul Weiss,
Dick Cavett Show,
1965, video available at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_fZQQ7o16yQ
.

21.
Casey J. Dawkins, “Recent Evidence on the Continuing Causes of Black-White Residential Segregation,”
Journal of Urban Affairs
26, no. 3 (2004): 379–400; Johnson and Shapiro, “Good Neighborhoods, Good Schools.”

22.
Amy Stuart Wells, quoted in Nikole Hannah-Jones, “Choosing a School for My Daughter in a Segregated City,”
New York Times Magazine
, June 9, 2016,
https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/12/magazine/choosing-a-school-for-my-daughter-in-a-segregated-city.html
.

CHAPTER 5: THE GOOD/BAD BINARY

1.
   Barbara Trepagnier,
Silent Racism: How Well-Meaning White People Perpetuate the Racial Divide,
exp. ed. (orig. 2006; New York: Paradigm, 2010).

2.
   Omowale Akintunde, “White Racism, White Supremacy, White Privilege, and the Social Construction of Race: Moving from Modernist to Postmodernist Multiculturalism,”
Multicultural Education
7, no. 2 (1999): 1.

3.
   Derman-Sparks, Ramsey, and Edwards,
What If All the Kids Are White?;
Debra Van Ausdale and Joe R. Feagin,
The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism
(Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).

4.
   Maria Benedicta Monteiro, Dalila Xavier de França, and Ricardo Rodrigues, “The Development of Intergroup Bias in Childhood: How Social Norms Can Shape Children's Racial Behaviors,”
International Journal of Psychology
44, no. 1 (2009): 29–39.

5.
   Van Ausdale and Feagin,
The First R.

CHAPTER 6: ANTI-BLACKNESS

1.
   Frantz Fanon,
Black Skin, White Masks
(New York: Grove Press, 1952); Toni Morrison,
Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination
(New York: Random House, 1992).

2.
   Michelle Alexander,
The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness
(New York: New Press, 2010); Bertrand and Mullainathan, “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal?”; Philip Oreopoulos and Diane Dechief, “Why Do Some Employers Prefer to Interview Matthew, but Not Samir? New Evidence from Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver,” working paper no. 95, Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network, February 2012,
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2018047
.

3.
   Susan E. Reed,
The Diversity Index: The Alarming Truth About Diversity in Corporate America . . . and What Can Be Done About It
(New York: AMACOM, 2011).

4.
   Alexander,
New Jim Crow;
Chauncee D. Smith, “Deconstructing the Pipeline: Evaluating School-to-Prison Pipeline Equal Protection Cases Through a Structural Racism Framework,”
Fordham Urban Law Journal
36 (2009): 1009; Pamela Fenning and Jennifer Rose, “Overrepresentation of African American Students in Exclusionary Discipline: The Role of School Policy,”
Urban Education
42, no. 6 (2007): 536–59; Sean Nicholson Crotty, Zachary Birchmeier, and David Valentine, “Exploring the Impact of School Discipline on Racial Disproportion in the Juvenile Justice System,”
Social Science Quarterly
90, no. 4 (2009): 1003–18; R. Patrick Solomon and Howard Palmer, “Black Boys Through the School-Prison Pipeline: When Racial Profiling and Zero Tolerance Collide,” in
Inclusion in Urban Educational Environments: Addressing Issues of Diversity, Equity, and Social Justice,
ed. Denise E. Armstrong and Brenda J. McMahon (Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2006), 191–212.

5.
   For the 7 percent cutoff and white flight, see Bonilla-Silva,
Racism Without Racists.
For declining housing demand, see Lincoln Quillian, “Why Is Black-White Residential Segregation So Persistent? Evidence on Three Theories from Migration Data,”
Social Science Research
31, no. 2 (2002): 197–229.

6.
   Coates, “The Case for Reparations.”

7.
   Menakem,
My Grandmother's Hands,
7.

8.
   Ta-Nehisi Coates, “The First White President: The Foundation of Donald Trump's Presidency Is the Negation of Barack Obama's Legacy,”
Atlantic,
October 2017,
https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/10/the-first-white-president-ta-nehisi-coates/537909
.

9.
   Sherene Razack,
Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms
(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998).

10.
Carol Anderson,
White Rage: The Unspoken Truth of Our Racial Divide
(New York: Bloomsbury, 2016).

11.
The ideologies in this list are modified from a list in Özlem Sensoy and Robin DiAngelo,
Is Everyone Really Equal? An Introduction to Key Concepts in Critical Social Justice Education,
2nd ed. (New York: Teachers College Press, 2017), 209.

CHAPTER 7: RACIAL TRIGGERS FOR WHITE PEOPLE

1.
   Michelle Fine, “Witnessing Whiteness,” in
Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society
, ed. Michelle Fine, Lois Weis, Linda Powell Pruitt, and April Burns (New York: Routledge, 1997), 57.

2.
   Pierre Bourdieu,
The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature,
ed. Randal Johnson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993).

3.
   Bourdieu termed these rules of each field's game “doxa.”

4.
   Pierre Bourdieu,
Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste
(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984), 170.

5.
   Ibid.

CHAPTER 8: THE RESULT: WHITE FRAGILITY

1.
   Don Gonyea, “Majority of White Americans Say They Believe Whites Face Discrimination,” NPR, October 24, 2017,
https://www.npr.org/2017/10/24/559604836/majority-of-white-americans-think-theyre-discriminated-against
.

2.
   Kenneth B. Clark,
Prejudice and Your Child
(Boston: Beacon Press, 1963); Derman-Sparks, Ramsey, and Edwards,
What If All the Kids Are White?

3.
   Debian Marty, “White Antiracist Rhetoric as Apologia: Wendell Berry's
The Hidden Wound
,” in
Whiteness: The Communication of Social Identity,
ed. Thomas Nakayama and Judith Martin (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999), 51.

4.
   Ibid.; T. A. Van Dijk, “Discourse and the Denial of Racism,”
Discourse and Society
3, no. 1 (1992): 87–118.

5.
   DiAngelo and Sensoy, “Getting Slammed.”

6.
   Morrison,
Playing in the Dark.

7.
   Bonilla-Silva,
Racism Without Racists,
68.

8.
   Rich Vodde, “De-Centering Privilege in Social Work Education: Whose Job Is It Anyway?,”
Journal of Race, Gender and Class
7, no. 4 (2001): 139–60.

CHAPTER 11: WHITE WOMEN'S TEARS

1.
   See, for example, Stacey Patton, “White Women, Please Don't Expect Me to Wipe Away Your Tears,”
Dame,
December 15, 2014,
http://www.damemagazine.com/2014/12/15/white-women-please-dont-expect-me-wipe-away-your-tears
.

2.
   Ibid.

CHAPTER 12: WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?

1.
   Lorde, “The Uses of Anger.”

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

ROBIN DIANGELO
is an academic, educator, and author working in the fields of critical discourse analysis and whiteness studies. She formerly served as a tenured professor of multicultural education at Westfield State University and a lecturer at the University of Washington, where she twice received the Student's Choice Award for Educator of the Year from the School of Social Work. DiAngelo has been a consultant and trainer for more than twenty years on issues of racial and social justice. She has numerous publications and books, including
What Does It Mean to Be White? Developing White Racial Literacy.
Her original article, “White Fragility,” which is the basis for this book, has influenced the national dialogue on race and been cited in the
New York Times
,
Colorlines
,
Salon,
the
Atlantic
, and on NPR.

BEACON PRESS
Boston, Massachusetts
www.beacon.org

Beacon Press books
are published under the auspices of
the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations.

Text design and composition by Kim Arney

Parts of this book have been adapted from Robin DiAngelo in
The Good Men Project
(
https://goodmenproject.com
): “White Fragility and the Question of Trust,” October 3, 2016; “White Women's Tears and the Men Who Love Them,” September 19, 2015; and “White Fragility and the Rules of Engagement,” June 13, 2015; from Robin DiAngelo,
What Does It Mean to Be White? Developing White Racial Literacy
(New York: Peter Lang, 2016); and from Robin DiAngelo, “White Fragility,”
International Journal of Critical Pedagogy
3, no. 2 (2011): 54–70.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: DiAngelo, Robin J., author.

Title: White fragility : why it's so hard to talk to white people about racism / Robin DiAngelo.

Description: Boston : Beacon Press, [2018] | Includes bibliographical references.

Identifiers: LCCN 2018003562 (print) | LCCN 2018005578 (ebook) | ISBN 9780807047422 (ebook) | ISBN 9780807047415 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Racism. | Whites. | Race relations.

Classification: LCC HT1521 (ebook) | LCC HT1521 .D486 2018 (print) | DDC 305.8—dc23

LC record available at
https://lccn.loc.gov/2018003562

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