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“lively joy”
[vif sentiment de joie]
:
le Publiciste
, September 2, 1800, in Gineste, p. 477.

“very lively cries of joy”
[des cris de joie très vifs]
:
le Courrier des spectacles
, September 2, 1800, in Gineste, p. 478.

married and widowed twice: death certificate of Clair Saussol, Rodez, February 28, 1822, Archives Départementales de l’Aveyron.

“his old guardian, whom he appears to love very much”:
Gazette de France
, August 9, 1800, in Lane,
Wild Boy
, p. 18.

Often, he went hungry: Itard, p. 88. When he could get food . . . by himself: Ibid., p. 19. Locked in a dark closet: Ibid., p. 95.

about forty boys and twenty girls: Institute for Deaf-Mutes enrollment records, 1801, National Archives, Paris.

For descriptions of student life at the Institute, see Harlan Lane’s
When the Mind Hears: A History of the Deaf
, pp. 8–13. The separate gardens for girls and boys can be seen in contemporary floor plans in unedited manuscripts in the archives of the Institute for Deaf-Mutes, now known as the Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris.

Chapter Eight

“The child . . . interesting being”: Itard, p. xxiv.

“I have often . . . this situation”: Ibid., p. 13.

“condemned . . . in our asylums”: Philippe Pinel, “Report to the Société des Observateurs de l’Homme concerning the child known by the name of ‘Sauvage de l’Aveyron,’” in Lane,
Wild Boy
, p. 58.

“Debtors are incarcerated . . . epileptics, imbeciles. . . .” Mercier, p. 160.

“subterranean dungeons . . . in the roof”: Ibid., p. 163.

“to tear a child . . . boredom in an institution”: Itard, p. 11.

“I never shared this unfavorable opinion” and “I dared to conceive certain hopes”: Ibid., p. 7.

Chapter Nine

“I believed . . . tastes and inclinations”: Ibid., p. 11.

“all the patience . . . enlightened teacher,” “It was necessary . . . happy in his own way,” “sleeping, eating . . . the fields,” and “scampers”: Ibid., p. 12.

“I have many . . . great satisfaction”: Ibid., p. 64.

“was the beginning . . . signs of satisfaction” and “I shall perhaps . . . life’s earliest joys”: Ibid., pp. 24 and 25.

“A ray of sun . . . child of nature”: Ibid., p. 18.

“cry of joy”: Ibid., p. 12.

“There, giving vent . . . incredible eagerness”: Ibid., p. 13.

Chapter Ten


. . . in moments of great happiness”: Ibid., p. 33.

“an almost ordinary child who cannot speak”: Ibid., p. 49.

“People may say . . . childish play”: Ibid., p. 25.

“He is often heard . . . sweetness” and “I am somewhat . . . name of Julie”: Ibid., p. 33.

Chapter Eleven

Victor’s friendship with the astronomer’s daughter: editors’ note to article in
Décade philosophique
, 1800, in Gineste, p. 481.

“in moments of great happiness”: Itard, p. 33.

“Everything put . . . communication of ideas”: Ibid., p. 67.

“I have . . . shown him toys . . . before his bonfire”: Ibid., p. 20.

“It would have been inhuman to insist further”: Ibid., p. 31.

“despairing of success”: Ibid., p. 32.

“trembling in every limb . . . towards the door,” “With every appearance of anger,” “his head directly . . . the chasm,” and “He was pale . . . bed and wept”: Ibid., p. 44.

“contented himself . . . in tears”: Ibid., p. 45.

But after that day, Victor . . . ran away: Ibid., pp. 44–45.

“escaped,” “shed many tears on seeing her again,” and “When Madame Guérin . . . began to weep”: Ibid., pp. 24–25.

Chapter Twelve

“The child . . . early success”: Ibid., p. 48.

Chapter Thirteen

“There is always the same . . . stormy wind”: Ibid., p. 92.

“such was the effect . . . wild than ever,” “an independent life, happy and regretted,” and “straight and regular . . . wild nature is composed”: Ibid., pp. 23–24.

“garland of flowers . . . swans”: Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, in Herriot, p. 25.

“Madame Récamier . . . child of nature,” “the young savage . . . attracted,” “startling greed,” “all the delicacies he could filch,” “running across . . . rabbit,” and “bundled into . . . nature untamed”: L. C. Wairy,
Mémoires sur la vie privée de Napoléon, sa famille, et sa cour
, vol. 3, Paris: Ladvocat, 1830, in Lane,
Wild Boy
, pp. 108–109.

Chapter Fourteen

“I was obliged . . . does he not speak?”: Itard, p. 26.

“inspiration of really creative imagination”: Ibid., p. 78.

“the most rapid . . . first triumph”: Ibid., p. 32.

“this reading conveyed no meaning to him”: Ibid., p. 61.

“He often stopped . . . of his errand”: Ibid., pp. 71–72.

“I have seen . . . threat, or punishment”: Ibid., p. 91.

“stamp with joy . . . behind his head”: Ibid., p. 57.

“Thus we have instructor . . . grimacing their hardest”: Ibid., p. 86.

“‘Unhappy creature . . . boredom at Bicêtre”: Ibid., p. 73.

“scarcely had I finished . . . bitter grief”: Ibid., p. 74.

Chapter Fifteen

“To speak of . . . judgment on him”: Ibid., p. 52.

“I know, sir . . . diligent” and “essential . . . know the results”: Champagny to Itard, June 13, 1806, in Lane,
Wild Boy
, p. 133 (date in Gineste, p. 390).

“brilliant hopes”: Itard, p. 40.

“As for me . . . and to distain”: Ibid., p. 52.

“incurable dumbness”: Ibid., p. 86.

“As soon as his governess . . . to go out”: Ibid., p. 93.

Chapter Sixteen

“Hurrying into the street . . . Barrière d’Enfer”: Ibid., p. 93.

“From my window . . . wealth of foliage” and “Along all . . . century-old trees”: Victorien Sardou, in preface to Cain, p. xx.

half a million people: Braudel, p. 248.

Chapter Seventeen

“He turned in the direction . . . gained the forest”: Itard, p. 89.

“he suddenly revived . . . radiant expression,” “In the eyes . . . given him life,” “in a loud and threatening tone,” and “This was always . . . all was forgotten”: Ibid., p. 90.

Chapter Eighteen

“Those generous . . . human heart”: Ibid., p. 87.

“raving maniac”: Ibid., p. 92.

“sitting beside . . . changed his attitude” and “he took the lady . . . his cheeks”: Ibid., p. 97.

the Savage . . . should be sent to . . . Charenton: Chaptal to the Administrators of Charitable Institutions (including the administrators of the Institute for Deaf-Mutes), April 8, 1801, in Gineste, pp. 265–266.

“destiny so strange”: Itard, p. 101.

“those generous feelings which are the glory and happiness of the human heart”: Ibid., p. 87.

“extraordinary young man”: Ibid., p. 101.

“order and discipline”
[l’ordre et la discipline]
: Administrators of Charitable Institutions to the Minister of the Interior, July 13, 1810, in Gineste, p. 448.

“with my deep gratitude”
[de ma profonde reconnaissance]
and “Widow Guérin”
[Veuve Guérin]
: Madame Guérin to the administrators of the Institute for Deaf-Mutes, May 2, 1811, Ibid., p. 454.

list of Victor’s possessions: Madame Guérin to the administrators of the Institute for Deaf-Mutes, July 10, 1811, Ibid.

“A park, a wood . . . virgin forest”: Hugo in Maurois, p. 20.

recognized him by his loping gait: Shattuck, p. 156.

Afterword

“Today he understands . . . efforts that were made”
[Aujourd’ hui il comprend plusieurs choses, sans articuler des mots. . . . Il est resté effaré, à demi sauvage et n’a pu apprendre à parler, malgré les soins qu’on en a pris.]
: Virey, report of 1817, in Gineste, p. 455.

“spoke no more about him”: Itard, pp. 4–5.

“protector”
[protecteur]:
E. Morel, “Notice biographique sur le Dr. Itard,”
Annales de l’éducation des sourds-muets et des aveugles
, 1845, in Gineste, p. 455.

Author’s Note

“It is in the Memoirs . . . positive education”: Séguin in Lane,
Wild Boy
, p. 269.

Arbellot, Guy, et al.
Atlas de la Révolution française
. Vol. 1,
Routes et communications
. Paris: École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, 1987.

Bonnaterre, P.-J.
Notice historique sur le sauvage de l’Aveyron
. Paris: Panckoucke, 1800. Translated by Harlan Lane and reprinted in his
The Wild Boy of Aveyron
, pp. 33–48.

Braudel, Fernand.
The Identity of France
. Vol. 1,
History and Environment
. Translated by Siân Reynolds. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Cain, Georges.
Nooks and Corners of Old Paris
. London: E. G. Richards, 1907.

Foulquier-Lavergne, P.
Le Sauvage de l’Aveyron
. Rodez: Imprimerie de Broca, 1875.

Gineste, Thierry.
Victor de l’Aveyron: Dernier enfant sauvage, premier enfant fou
. Paris: Hachette/Pluriel, 1993.

Herriot, Édouard.
Madame Récamier
. Translated by Alys Hallard. New York: Boni and Liveright/London: Heinmann, 1926.

Itard, Jean-Marc-Gaspard.
The Wild Boy of Aveyron
. Translated by George and Muriel Humphrey. New York: Meredith, 1962.

———.
When the Mind Hears: A History of the Deaf
. New York: Random House, 1984.

Lane, Harlan.
The Wild Boy of Aveyron
. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Maurois, André.
Olympio: The Life of Victor Hugo
. Translated by Gerard Hopkins. New York: Harper, 1956.

Mercier, Louis-Sébastien.
Panorama of Paris: Selections from Le Tableau de Paris
. Based on the translation by Helen Simpson. Jeremy D. Popkin, ed. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999.

Shattuck, Roger.
The Forbidden Experiment: The Story of the Wild Boy of Aveyron
. London: Quartet Books, 1980.

I would like to thank the many, many people who read (or listened to) drafts and offered advice and encouragement, with special thanks to Dan Bachhuber’s fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade classes at the J. J. Hill Montessori School in St. Paul, Minnesota; the Jerome Foundation, whose Travel and Study Grant Program enabled me to retrace the wild boy’s footsteps in France; Charles Eisendrath of the Knight-Wallace Journalism Fellowship at the University of Michigan, who helped me find a new writing path; Monsieur Jean Delmas, longtime director of the Rodez archives, who told me so much about the wild boy; Harlan Lane, whose book
The Wild Boy of Aveyron
was invaluable to me in writing this one; my agent, George Nicholson, who believed in this book; and most of all my wonderful husband, Don, who liked the wild boy as much as I did.

Also by Mary Losure

Hardcover ISBN 978-0-7636-5670-6
Also available as an e-book and in audio

www.candlewick.com

Text copyright © 2013 by Mary Losure
Illustrations copyright © 2013 by Timothy Basil Ering

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, transmitted, or stored in an information retrieval system in any form or by any means, graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, and recording, without prior written permission from the publisher.

First electronic edition 2013

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2012943644
ISBN 978-0-7636-5669-0 (hardcover)
ISBN 978-0-7636-6369-8 (electronic)

The illustrations were done in charcoal on paper.

Candlewick Press
99 Dover Street
Somerville, Massachusetts 02144

visit us at
www.candlewick.com

BOOK: Wild Boy
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