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Authors: Ross Laidlaw

Attila

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ATTILA: THE SCOURGE OF GOD
ATTILA
THE SCOURGE OF GOD
The story of Flavius Aetius, the last great Roman general, and of his friend who became an enemy: Attila, King of the Huns
Ross Laidlaw
This eBook edition published in 2011 by
Birlinn Limited
West Newington House
Newington Road
Edinburgh
EH9 1QS
www.birlinn.co.uk
First published in Great Britain in 2004
This edition published in 2007 by Polygon, an imprint of Birlinn Ltd
Copyright © Ross Laidlaw, 2004, 2007
The moral right of Ross Laidlaw to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form without the express written permission of the publisher.
eBook ISBN: 978 1 85790 071 5
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
To Margaret my wife, Kenneth my son,
Ruth my daughter, Bill her husband, and their
little son William MacKinlay
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My warmest appreciation to the following for their generous help in supplying me with information from the Internet etc.: Bill Paget, Dr Alberto Massimo, Roy Ellis, and Barbara Halley; also to Helen Simpson for her superb editing. A special word of thanks to my publishers Hugh Andrew (who sowed the seed and made it grow) and Neville Moir, for their steadfast support and encouragement.

C
ONTENTS

Acknowledgements

List of Maps and Plans

Glossary of Latin Terms and Place Names

Historical Note

  I   Ravenna,
AD
423–33

 II   Constantinople,
AD
434–50

III   The Catalaunian Plains,
AD
451

IV   Rome,
AD
451–5

Afterword

Author's Note

Appendices

Notes

MAPS AND PLANS

Journeys of Boniface and Titus in Africa and Byzacena

Titus' Route through the Appenines

Attila's Journey to the Seer Wu Tze

Gaius' Journey to Fort Spolicinum

The East Roman Empire and the Persian Empire

The Roman Empire,450

Constantinople,
c
. 450

Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, 20 June 451

Rome,
c
. 450

GLOSSARY OF LATIN TERMS AND PLACE NAMES

Note: the short form of compound place names such as Augusta Treverorum or Tigernum Castrum is Augusta or Tigernum.

adscriptus glebae

(lit: tied to the land) serf, villein

adventus Saxonum

the coming of the Saxons

Aemilian Plain

Lombardy

agens
(pl:
agentes
)
in rebus

courier-cum-spy

ala

military ‘wing'

Aluatica

Tongres

Anderida

Pevensey

angon

barbed javelin

Appenini

the Appenines

Aquincum

Budapest

Aquitania

Aquitaine

Arar river

the Saône

Arduenna Silva

the Ardennes

Arelate

Arles

Aremorica

Brittany

Argentaria

Horburg, Alsace

Argentorate Stratisburgum

Strasbourg

Ariminum

Rimini

Arvernum

the Auvergne

Augusta Taurinorum

Turin

Augusta Treverorum

Trier

Aureliani

Orléans

Autissiodorum

Auxerre

auxilium

auxiliary infantry unit

ballista

giant crossbow-like catapult

Bantisus river

the Ob

barbaricum

barbarian territory

barbaricarii

officers' armour-makers

barritus

battle-cry

Basilia

Basle

biarchus

junior officer, equivalent to NCO

Boiaria, Boii

Bavaria, Bavarians

bora

regional north wind

Boreal

far north, Arctic

Borysthenes river

the Dnieper

Branodunum

Brancaster

bucellarii

landowner's private retainers

bucellatum

military rations biscuit

bucina

military trumpet

bucinator

army trumpeter

byrrus

hooded cloak

Caesarodunum

Tours

Caledonia

Scotland

calidarium

hot room of bath-house

Cambracum

Cambrai

Cambria

Wales

campidoctores

army drill-sergeants

canonicarius

financial overseer

Cantium

Kent

capsarius

army medical orderly

carae epistolarum

officials in charge of financial correspondence

carbonarii

charcoal-burners

cardo

main street

Carpathus Mountains

the Carpathians

Carthago Nova

Cartagena

catafractarius

heavily armoured cavalryman

Cebenna mountains

the Cévennes

centenarius

(i) junior army officer; (ii) horse which has won 100 or more races

Chersonesus of Thracia

the Gallipoli peninsula

Choson

Korea

circitor

foreman/NCO of
bucellarii
or regular troops

clibanarius

armoured cavalryman

Colchis

trans-Caucasia

colonus

tenant farmer

comes

count

comes rei privatae

Count of the Privy Purse

comes sacrarum largitionum

Count of the Public Purse

comitatus

retinue, group of followers

compulsores

collectors of tax arrears

conductor

foreman

cuculli

hooded cloaks

cuneus

attack formation

cuniculi

drainage channels

curialis

leading citizen

cursor

messenger

cursus velox

imperial post/courier service

Danubius river

the Danube

decemprimi

inner committee of city council

decurion

(i) army rank; (ii) town councillor

defensor, defensor civitatis

magistrate

Deva river

the Dee

Divonum

Cahors

Dor river

the Doré

ducenarius

army officer

Durocatalaunum

Châlons-sur-Marne

Durocortorum

Reims

femenalia

underpants

Elaver river

the Allier

Entia river

the Enza

erectores

chariot-race officials

Etruria

Tuscany

Florentia

Florence

foederatus

ally

foedus

i) alliance; (ii) oath of allegiance

follis

money-bag

francisca

throwing-axe

Fretum Gallicum

Straits of Dover

Gallia Narbonensis

Narbonne province

Garannonum

Burgh Castle

gladius

short sword

Grinnicum

Cannes

Hadrianopolis

Adrianople

Haemus Mons

Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria

harpastum

ball game

Hellespontus

Dardanelles

Hibernia

Ireland

Hispania

Spain

Imaus Mons

the Urals

insulae

‘high-rise' buildings

Italia

Italy

iugatio

land tax

iugerum

unit of land measurement

kontos

heavy spear

Lacus Benacus

Lake Garda

Lacus Brigantinus

Lake Constance

laetus

P.O.W.-turned-soldier

lanista

gladiatorial instructor

lares et penates

household gods

latrocinium

robbery

Lauriacum

Lorch

Lerina

Lérins

Lexovium

Lisieux

Liger river

the Loire

limitanei

frontier troops

Limonum

Poitiers

lituus

cavalry trumpet

Locus Mauriacus

the Catalaunian Plains

ludus latrunculorum

board game

Lugdunum

Lyon

Magister militum

Master of Soldiers

mappa

white cloth used to signal start of chariot races at the Circus

Mare Caspium

Caspian Sea

Mare Suevicum

Baltic Sea

Massilia

Marseille

Matrona river

the Marne

Mediolanum

Milan

Metaris Aestuarium

the Wash

Metis

Metz

Mons Matronae Pass

Genèvre Pass

Mosa river

the Meuse

Mosella river

the Moselle

murcus

‘Draft-dodger', self-mutilated to avoid conscription

Naissus

Niš

Narbo Martius

Narbonne town

Narbonensis

Narbonne province

naufragium

(lit: shipwreck) crash in chariot race

Nemetacum

Arras

Nicer river

the Neckar

Nemausus

Nîmes

Novae

Sistova, Bulgaria

Noviomagus

Chichester

numerarius

financial official

numerus

infantry unit

nummi

coins

Oceanus Germanicus

North Sea

Oechardis river

the Irtish

Old Dacia

Transylvania; Romania

onager

(lit: ‘kicking ass') catapult

palatini

central groups of the Roman field army

papilio

army tent

Paralia

Malabar

pedites

foot-soldiers

perditi

criminals, outlaws

Phrudis river

the Somme

pilleus pannonicus

soldier's cap

Placentia

Piacenza

Pontus Euxinus

Black Sea

Portus Adurni

Portchester

Portus Dubris

Dover

praenomen

forename

praepositus

regimental commander

pridie

the day before

primicerius

most senior NCO in Roman army

princeps

highest rank in courier service

principales

inner committee

procuratores

overseers, managers

Propontis

Sea of Marmara

protector

senior army officer

Provincia

Provence

quaestor

magistrate

Rauraris river

the Hérault

Regulbium

Reculver

res privata

Emperor's private income

Revessium

Saint-Paulien

Rha river

the Volga

Rhenus river

the Rhine

BOOK: Attila
8.44Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
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