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Authors: Anthony Everitt

Augustus

BOOK: Augustus
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CONTENTS

Title Page

Dedication

Chronology

Maps

Family Tree

Preface

Introduction

I
S
CENES FROM A
P
ROVINCIAL
C
HILDHOOD

II
T
HE
G
REAT-UNCLE

III
A P
OLITICAL
M
ASTER
C
LASS

IV
U
NFINISHED
B
USINESS

V
A B
OY WITH A
N
AME

VI
F
ROM
V
ICTORY,
D
EFEAT

VII
K
ILLING
F
IELDS

VIII
D
IVIDED
W
ORLD

IX
G
OLDEN
A
GE

X
F
IGHTING
N
EPTUNE

XI
P
ARTHIAN
S
HOTS

XII
E
AST
I
S
E
AST AND
W
EST
I
S
W
EST

XIII
T
HE
P
HONY
W
AR

XIV
S
HOWDOWN

XV
A L
ONG
F
AREWELL

XVI
A
BDICATION

XVII
W
HOM THE
G
ODS
L
OVE

XVIII
E
XERCISING
P
OWER

XIX
T
HE
C
ULT OF
V
IRTUE

XX
L
IFE AT
C
OURT

P
HOTO
I
NSERT

XXI
G
ROWING THE
E
MPIRE

XXII
A F
AMILY AT
W
AR

XXIII
T
HE
U
NHAPPY
R
ETURN

XXIV
T
HE
B
ITTER
E
ND

I
NTO THE
F
UTURE

Notes

Sources

Acknowledgments

About the Author

Also by Anthony Everitt

Copyright

F
OR
R
ODDY
A
SHWORTH

CHRONOLOGY

 

B.C.

 

BEFORE
70

 

Gaius Octavius marries Atia

? 70

 

Gaius Cilnius Maecenas born

69

 

Octavia, Octavius’ second daughter, born

63

 

Consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero
Conspiracy of Lucius Sergius Catilina

September 23

 

Gaius Octavius (Augustus) born

C. 62

 

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa born

61

 

Gaius Octavius (Augustus’ father) praetor

60

 

First Triumvirate formed

59

 

Julius Caesar consul

58

 

Gaius Octavius dies

58–49

 

Caesar proconsul in Gaul

BEFORE
54

 

Octavia marries Gaius Claudius Marcellus

53

 

Marcus Licinius Crassus invades Parthia; defeated and killed at Carrhae

52

 

Pompey the Great sole consul

49

 

Civil war begins. Caesar invades Italy, wins campaign in Spain, becomes dictator

48

 

Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus in Greece
Pompey killed in Egypt
Caesar installs Cleopatra on Egyptian throne

46

 

Caesar defeats republican army in northern Africa
Cato commits suicide

45

 

Caesar defeats republican army in Spain

autumn

 

Octavius at Apollonia

44

 

Caesar Dictator for Life

March 15

 

Caesar assassinated

April

 

Octavius in Italy
Octavius accepts adoption by Caesar; becomes Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, or Octavian

43

 

War at Mutina; Mark Antony defeated
Octavian consul
Mark Antony, Octavian, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus form Second Triumvirate; Proscription launched; Cicero put to death

42

 

Campaign at Philippi; Brutus and Cassius commit suicide
Sextus Pompeius in control of Sicily
Julius Caesar deified
Octavia’s son, Marcus Claudius Marcellus (Marcellus), born
Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Livia Drusilla and Tiberius Claudius Nero, (Tiberius) born

41

 

Lucius Antonius besieged at Perusia
Antony meets Cleopatra, winters at Alexandria

40

 

Perusia falls
Marcellus, Octavia’s husband, dies
Octavian marries Scribonia
Parthians invade Syria
Calenus dies in Gaul
Treaty of Brundisium; Antony marries Octavia

39

 

Treaty of Misenum
Ventidius defeats the Parthians
Agrippa campaigns in Gaul
Octavian’s daughter, Julia, born

38

 

Triumvirate renewed
Nero Claudius Drusus (Drusus) born

January 17

 

Octavian marries Livia Drusilla
Antony dismisses Ventidius
Sextus Pompeius defeats Octavian off Cumae and in straits of Messana

37

 

Virgil’s
Eclogues
published
Treaty of Tarentum

36

 

After initial defeat (August), Octavian defeats Sextus Pompeius at Naulochus (September 3)
Lepidus dropped from Triumvirate
Antony’s Parthian expedition
Octavian granted
tribunicia sacrosanctitas

35

 

Sextus Pompeius killed
Octavian campaigns in the Balkans

34

 

Antony annexes Armenia
Donations of Alexandria

33

 

Octavian consul (2), Triumvirate lapses at end of year
Agrippa aedile
Tiberius Claudius Nero (father) dies

32

 

Antony divorces Octavia
Octavian publishes Antony’s will
Consuls leave Rome for Antony
Oath of loyalty to Octavian

31

 

Octavian consul (3)
Battle of Actium

30

 

Octavian consul (4)
Octavian captures Alexandria; Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide

29

 

Octavian consul (5)
Octavian’s triple triumph
Temple of Julius Caesar and the Curia Julia dedicated
Marcus Licinius Crassus pacifies Thrace

28

 

Octavian consul (6)
Review of Senate
Temple of Apollo on the Palatine dedicated
Mausoleum of Augustus begun

27

 

Octavian consul (7)

January

 

First constitutional settlement; Octavian named Augustus; granted a large
provincia
for ten years
Agrippa builds Pantheon

27–24

 

Augustus in Gaul and Spain

26

 

Augustus consul (8)
Dismissal and death of Gaius Cornelius Gallus
Expedition to Arabia Felix

25

 

Augustus consul (9)
Julia marries Marcellus
Augustus falls ill in Spain, convalesces

? 24–23

 

Trial of Marcus Primus and conspiracy of Fannius Caepio and Aulus Terentius Varro Murena

24

 

Augustus consul (10)

23

 

Augustus consul (11)
Augustus at Rome, falls ill
Second constitutional settlement: Augustus resigns consulship, receives
imperium proconsulare maius
and
tribunicia potestas
Death of Marcellus
Horace’s
Odes
(three books) published

23–21

 

Agrippa with enhanced
imperium
in the east

22–19

 

Augustus in the east

21

 

Agrippa marries Julia, goes to Gaul

20

 

Augustus negotiates entente with Parthia; Tiberius in Armenia
Gaius born to Julia
Rufus Egnatius praetor

C
. 19

 

Agrippa’s daughter, Julia, born

19

 

Egnatius bids for the consulship
Virgil dies
Augustus, back at Rome, receives consular powers
Agrippa subdues Spanish tribes

18

 

Renewal of Augustus’
imperium maius
for five years
Renewal of Agrippa’s
imperium
for five years, plus grant of
tribunicia potestas
Review of Senate

18–17

 

Social and moral reforms (
leges Juliae
)

17

 

Lucius born to Julia, Augustus adopts Gaius and Lucius
Celebration of the Ludi Saeculares

16–13

 

Augustus in Gaul; Agrippa in the east

15

 

Tiberius and Drusus campaign in the Alps
Drusus’ son, Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus(Germanicus), born

13

 

Tiberius consul (1)
Agrippa granted
imperium maius,
and
tribunicia potestas
renewed
Theater of Marcellus and Ara Pacis dedicated

13–12
winter

 

Agrippa in Pannonia to suppress threatened rebellion

12

 

Lepidus dies, Augustus succeeds him as
pontifex maximus

March

 

Agrippa dies
Agrippa Postumus born

12–9

 

Tiberius campaigns in Pannonia; Drusus in Germany

11

 

Tiberius divorces Vipsania and marries Julia

10

 

Drusus’ son, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus (Claudius), born

9

 

Death of Drusus

9–7

 

Tiberius campaigns in Germany

8

 

Augustus’
imperium maius
renewed
Deaths of Maecenas and Horace

7

 

Tiberius consul (2), celebrates triumph

6

 

Armenian revolt
Tiberius granted
tribunicia potestas
for five years
Tiberius retires to Rhodes

5

 

Augustus consul (12)
Gaius Caesar comes of age, appointed
princeps iuventutis,
designated consul for
A.D. 1

2

 

Augustus consul (13)
Lucius Caesar comes of age
Disgrace of Julia
Forum of Augustus and Temple of Mars Ultor dedicated
King Frahâta of Parthia murdered, succeeded by Frahâtak
Ovid publishes
Ars Amatoria

1

 

Gaius Caesar sent to the east with
imperium

A.D.

 

2

 

Agreement between Gaius Caesar and King Frahâtak
Tiberius returns from Rhodes
Lucius Caesar dies at Massilia

2–3

 

Gaius Caesar wounded

4

 

Gaius Caesar resigns his duties and dies
Augustus adopts Agrippa Postumus and Tiberius, who adopts Germanicus
Tiberius granted
tribunicia potestas
for ten years
Tiberius campaigns in Germany
lex Aelia Sentia
Review of Senate

5

 

Tiberius reaches the Elbe

6

 

Establishment of
aerarium militare
Revolt in Pannonia and Dalmatia

7

 

Agrippa Postumus banished to Planasia

8

 

Julia, Augustus’ granddaughter, and Ovid banished
Pannonians surrender

9

 

Dalmatia subdued
Varus defeated in Germany; three legions lost
lex Papia Poppaea

10–11

 

Tiberius campaigns in Germany

12

 

Germanicus consul
Tiberius’ triumph

13

 

Germanicus takes command in Gaul and Germany
Tiberius’
tribunicia potestas
renewed for ten years; he receives
imperium proconsulare maius
equal to that of Augustus
Germanicus receives proconsular
imperium

14
August 19

 

Augustus dies
Agrippa Postumus put to death
Tiberius becomes
princeps
Julia, Augustus’ daughter, dies in exile

15

 

Germanicus visits the scene of the
Variana clades

17

 

Ovid dies in exile

19

 

Germanicus dies, perhaps poisoned

23

 

Tiberius’ son, Drusus, dies, perhaps killed by Sejanus

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