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Authors: Chris Given-Wilson

Henry IV

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Copyright © 2016 Chris Given-Wilson

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Set in Baskerville by IDSUK (DataConnection) Ltd

Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Given-Wilson, Chris.

Henry IV / Chris Given-Wilson.

pages cm

ISBN 978–0–300–15419–1 (cl : alk. paper)

1. Henry IV, King of England, 1367–1413. 2. Great Britain—Kings and rulers—Biography. 3. Great Britain—History—Henry IV, 1399–1413. I. Title.

DA255.G58 2016

942.04′1092—dc23

[B]

2015023658

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

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For Alice and all our family

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF PLATES

LIST OF MAPS AND TABLES

ACKNOWLEGEMENTS

ABBREVIATED REFERENCES

Introduction

Part One: The Great Duchy 1267–1399

1
The House of Lancaster and the Crown (1267–1367)

2
Father and Son I (1367–1382)

3
The Making of a Dissident (1382–1387)

4
Lords of the Field (1387–1389)

5
The Making of a Hero (1390–1393)

6
Family and Lands (1391–1394)

7
The Two Duchies and the Crown (1394–1396)

8
Richard Resurgent (1397–1398)

9
‘A Manifest Miracle of God’ (1398–1399)

10
The Making of a King (1399)

Part Two: A King at War 1399–1405

11
‘In This New World’ (1399–1400)

12
The Parliament of 1401

13
The Percy Ascendancy (1401–1402)

14
Piracy, Rumour and Riot (1401–1402)

15
From Humbleton Hill to Hateley Field (1403)

16
Louis of Orléans and Owain Glyn Dŵr (1403–1405)

17
An Empire in Crisis: Ireland and Guyenne (1399–1405)

18
The Death of an Archbishop (1404–1405)

Part Three: Recovery and Reform 1404–1410

19
The Search for Solvency (1404–1406)

20
Archbishop Arundel and the Council (1407–1409)

21
Between War and Peace (1405–1410)

22
Aliens, Merchants and Englishness

23
England, the Papacy and the Council of Pisa (1404–1409)

24
Heresy, Piety and Reform

Part Four: Lancastrian Kingship

25
The King and his Image

26
Council, Court and Household

27
The Royal Affinity and Parliamentary Politics

28
Nobles, Rebels and Traitors

29
War and Diplomacy

Part Five: The Pendulum Years 1409–1413

30
The Prince's Administration (1409–1411)

31
‘The Greatest Uprisings’ (1409–1412)

32
Burgundians, Armagnacs and Guyenne (1411–1413)

33
Father and Son II (1412–1413)

Conclusion

EPILOGUE

APPENDIX: HENRY IV'S ITINERARY
, 1399–1413

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX

PLATES

1.
Alabaster effigy of Henry IV on his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral, commissioned by his widow,
c.
1425. Photo: author.

2.
The ‘Coronation Portrait’ of Richard II, commissioned
c.
1395. Westminster Abbey. Copyright © Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey.

3.
Opening of Psalm 1 from the Lichtenthal Psalter, Lichtenthal Abbey, Baden-Baden, commissioned by Joan, countess of Hereford, to celebrate Henry IV's marriage to Mary de Bohun in February 1381. Copyright © Lichtenthal Abbey and Lucy Freeman Sandler.

4.
The remains of the Gascoigne Tower, Pontefract Castle, West Yorkshire. Photo: author

5.
The keep of Warkworth castle, Northumberland, built by the earl of Northumberland at the end of the fourteenth century. Photo: author.

6.
Lancastrian livery collar of linked SS, silver, fifteenth century. Copyright © Museum of London

7.
Sycharth, Powys. Photo: Alice Curteis.

8.
John Bradmore's description of his cure of the prince of Wales after the battle of Shrewsbury in July 1403. British Library Ms Sloane 2,272, fo. 137r. Copyright © The British Library Board.

9.
a and b. (a) Statue of John of Gaunt, the Gatehouse, Lancaster castle, Lancashire. Photo: author; (b) the gatehouse of Lancaster castle, the construction of which was begun on Henry IV's orders in 1399 and completed under Henry V. Photo: Alice Curteis.

10.
‘Saint’ Richard Scrope, archbishop of York. York Minster Library, The Bolton Hours, Ms Add. 2, fo. 202v. Copyright © The Chapter of York.

11.
King James I of Scotland (1406-37), sixteenth-century anonymous oil painting on panel. Scottish National Portrait Gallery. Copyright © National Galleries of Scotland.

12.
Tomb effigy of Thomas, duke of Clarence (1387-–1421), second son of Henry IV. Photo: author.

13.
a and b. Second Great Seal of Henry IV (
c.
1406): (a) obverse; (b) reverse. Courtesy of the Society of Antiquaries. Photos: Michael Bennett.

14.
Petitions to the king: from Robert Hallum, archdeacon of Canterbury; Sir Matthew Gournay; and Garcius Arnald of Salins in Guyenne. British Library Add. Ms. 19,398, fo. 23. Copyright © The British Library Board.

15.
The Chapel in the Crag, Knaresborough, North Yorkshire, carved by John the Mason in thanksgiving for his young son being miraculously saved from falling rock. Henry IV granted permission for the shrine in 1407. Photo: author

16.
Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth Palace. Nineteenth-century portrait. By permission of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Church Commissioners.

17.
a and b. (a) Battlefield Chapel, near Shrewsbury, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene and founded by Henry IV,
c.
1409, on the site of the battle of Shrewsbury; (b) statue of Henry IV on the east gable of the Chapel. Photos: author.

18.
Illustration from Thomas Hoccleve,
De Regimine Principum
, written in 1410–11. British Library Arundel Ms 38, fo. 37. Copyright © The British Library Board.

19.
From Henry IV's Great Bible. British Library Royal Ms 1 E IX, fo. 63v. Copyright © The British Library Board.

1 Henry IV, alabaster effigy on his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral, commissioned by his widow in circa 1425. Joan of Navarre&s effigy was added after her death in 1437.

2 Richard II, the ‘Coronation Portrait’, Westminster Abbey, shows him in full regal attire with crown orb, sceptre, robes and slippers. Although commissioned
c
.1395, it presents a youthful Richard, perhaps intended to suggest his appearance at his coronation in 1377.

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