Read Slave Nation Online

Authors: Alfred W. Blumrosen

Slave Nation (43 page)

BOOK: Slave Nation
7.56Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
ads
M

MacLeod, Duncan, 212

Madison, James

acknowledges at Constitutional Convention that two houses of Congress might have different principles of representation, 181–2

concludes that differences between states are based on slavery, not size, 178–82

organizes “Virginia Plan” featuring strong central government, 172

participation in development of three-fifths rule, 172–3

records of the Convention, 178-182, 185-187, 198-202, 229, 233

Maier, Pauline, 139, 195-196

Mansfield, Lord 7-12, 21, 30, 35, 106

cases of runaway slaves prior to
Somerset
, 7–8

decision in
Somerset
case, 11-12, 142

later denial that he freed slaves, 35

reacts to 1774 Declaration of Independence from Parliment, 106

Mason, George, 130-131, 172

proposes Virginia Constitutional provision that all men are born free, 125–6

McCullough, David, 92

McGaughy, J. Kent, 192, 193

McKitrick, Eric, 43

Miller, John C., 122

Monroe, James and the northwest territory, 167-168, 188, 239

Morgan, Edmund, 46

Morris, Gouverneur, 232

vigorous opponent of slavery in Constitutional Convention, 198–9

N

Natural law, 118, 125-126

John Locke, 118

Nicholas, Robert Carter, 49

opposition to Mason’s “born free” resolution language, 126, 128

Northwest Ordinance, 195, 208-209, 211-224, 225, 227, 234, 235-236, 237, 238-244, 245, 251

draft of July 9, 1787, 203–5

concepts developed during Constitutional Convention in New York, 190–3, 204–5

O

Oakes, James, 33

Ohio Company, 168, 189, 204, 208, 236

Otis, James, 39, 84

P

Parliment, British

adopst Declaratory Act of 1766, 19

Galloway plan to include colonies rejected, 114

imposes Stamp Act in 1765, 17–18

repeals Stamp Act, 19

Pendleton, Edmund, 49-50, 129

Pickering, Timothy, 159, 163-164, 183, 184, 211

Pinckney, Charles, 173, 231, 232

Q

Quarles, Benjamin, 286

R

Rakove, Jack, 94, 99

Randolph, Edmund, 172-173, 186, 227-228

Randolph, Peyton, 49, 87

Reid, John Phillip, 110

Repugnancy clauses in colonial charters, 21, 58, 70

Robinson, Donald, 40, 88, 94

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 76, 89, 117

Rutledge, John, 81, 102-104, 147-149, 228-229, 230, 236

S

Sharp, Granville, 5, 7

Shays’s Rebellion, 160, 171-172, 187, 218

Slavery

declared “odious” by Lord Mansfield, See Mansfield distinguished from slave trade, 44, 46–8

former slaves in Union army in Civil War, 251–2

impact on white wages, 26, 158, 160, 183–4, 213, 226–7

lawful in colonies until legislative or judicial change, 163–4

legality confused in England before
Somerset
, 6–8

unlawful in Northwest Ordinance, 207–8

Smith, Melancton, 204

Somerset
decision, 12

in colonial papers, 15-16

colonial slaves’ awareness, 24

impact on the colonies, 27, 48, 142, 151-155

London papers, 12

prohibited under Articles of Confederation, 145–155

see Lord Mansfield

viewed as freeing slaves in England, 12–14

Somerset, James, 1-14

Stamp Act, 17, 30, 48, 50

Stewart, Charles, 1-3, 5-6, 9

Strong, Jonathan, 5

Sutton, Robert, 194

T

Territorial ordinances, 1784,1785, 160–3, 165–9

Three-fifths formula of representation, 173-174, 188, 213, 225, 227-230

Townshend taxes, 19

Treaty of Paris, 1783, 155, 157–9

V

Virginia

committees of correspondence, 57, 63, 66, 69

reaction against George Mason’s draft declaration of rights, 126–7 reaction to
Somerset
decision, 33, 35, 37-38

response to Lord Dunmore’s call for slaves to help put down

rebellion, 123–4

slave trade, 46-48, 141

validates Northwest Ordinance, including antislavery clause, 239–40

Virginia Resolution of 1773, 57-58, 64

W

Washington, George, 115-117, 172, 197

West Indian planters, 9

Whately, Thomas, 52

Wills, Gary, 273

Wages of white workers as affected by slavery, 26, 158, 160, 183–4, 213, 226–7

Wood, Gordon, 192

 

Chapter 1. Leading Figures in the
Somerset
Case

Courtesy Dickinson College

While slave owners may not have wanted their slaves to hear about the
Somerset
decision, it was impossible for them to keep it secret. Slaves learning of it may have sought to take ships to freedom in England, or their masters might have thought that this is what they would do. In either case, the masters blamed Britain for encouraging slaves to escape as a result of the
Somerset
decision. Slave owner Gabriel Jones thought that Bacchus, who ran away, had been motivated by the
Somerset
decision, as the bottom of his ad makes clear.

Chapter 8. Writing the Articles of Confederation, 1776–77

John Dickinson, author of the famous “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania,” was asked to prepare a draft for Articles of Confederation of the colonies. His draft proposed a powerful central government, with states required to follow federal policies. His proposal ran into stiff opposition and was rejected in favor of a much more limited federal authority.

Thomas Burke opposed Dickinson’s proposed strong central government. Burke prevailed; the Articles created a weak government with no taxing power and no chief executive.

Henry Laurens, a leading South Carolina slave holder, stated in 1776 that “I abhor slavery.” He was president of the Continental Congress in 1777, which ensured that slaves could not gain their freedom by being taken into a “free” state, as had Somerset. As a commissioner at the Paris Peace Treaty ending the Revolutionary War, Laurens insisted that Britain return the slaves who had joined the British forces.

BOOK: Slave Nation
7.56Mb size Format: txt, pdf, ePub
ads

Other books

Nazi Princess by Jim Wilson
A Touch of Magick by N. J. Walters
Foamers by Justin Kassab
The Hostage Prince by Jane Yolen
Her Little White Lie by Maisey Yates
Rising Tiger by Trevor Scott
Deep and Dark and Dangerous by Mary Downing Hahn