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Authors: Robert B. Cialdini

Influence: Science and Practice

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Influence Science and Practice

 

Fifth Edition

Robert B. Cialdini
Arizona State University

 

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
    Cialdini, Robert B.
     Influence : science and practice / Robert B. Cialdini.–5th ed.
        p. cm.
     Includes bibliographical references (p.  ) and index.
     ISBN-13: 978-0-205-60999-4
     ISBN-10: 0-205-60999-6
     1. Influence (Psychology) 2. Persuasion (Psychology) 3. Compliance. I. Title.
     BF774.C53 2009
     153.8 52–dc22
                                                                  2008020078

Printed in the United States of America

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 RRD-VA 12 11 10 09 08

Credits appear on page 260, which constitutes an extension of the copyright page.

Contents

 

Preface

Introduction

CHAPTER 1 Weapons of Influence

     
Click, Whirr

     
Betting the Shortcut Odds

     
The Profiteers

     
Jujitsu

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 2 Reciprocation: The Old Give and Take . . . and Take

     
How the Rule Works

         
The Rule Is Overpowering

         
Politics

         
The Not-So-Free Sample

         
The Rule Enforces Uninvited Debts

         
The Rule Can Trigger Unequal Exchanges

     
Reciprocal Concessions

     
Rejection-Then-Retreat

         
Reciprocal Concessions, Perceptual Contrast, and the Watergate Mystery

         
Damned If You Do, Damned If You Don’t

         
Here’s My Blood, and Do Call Again

         
The Sweet, Secret Side Effects

            
Responsibility

            
Satisfaction

     
Defense

         
Rejecting the Rule

         
Smoking Out the Enemy

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 3 Commitment and Consistency: Hobgoblins of the Mind

     
Whirring Along

         
The Quick Fix

         
The Foolish Fortress

         
Seek and Hide

     
Commitment Is the Key

         
Hearts and Minds

         
The Magic Act

            
The Public Eye

            
The Effort Extra

         
The Inner Choice

         
Growing Legs to Stand On

         
Standing Up for the Public Good

     
Defense

         
Stomach Signs

         
Heart-of-Hearts Signs

         
Special Vulnerabilities

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 4 Social Proof: Truths Are Us

     
The Principle of Social Proof

         
People Power

         
After the Deluge

     
Cause of Death: Uncertain(ty)

         
A Scientific Approach

         
Devictimizing Yourself

     
Monkey Me, Monkey Do

         
Monkey Die

         
Monkey Island

     
Defense

         
Sabotage

         
Looking Up

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 5 Liking: The Friendly Thief

     
Making Friends to Influence People

     
Why Do I Like You? Let Me List the Reasons

         
Physical Attractiveness

         
Similarity

         
Compliments

         
Contact and Cooperation

            
Off to Camp

            
Back to School

     
Conditioning and Association

         
Does the Name Pavlov Ring a Bell?

         
From the News and Weather to the Sports

     
Defense

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 6 Authority: Directed Deference

     
The Power of Authority Pressure

     
The Allures and Dangers of Blind Obedience

     
Connotation Not Content

         
Titles

         
Clothes

         
Trappings

     
Defense

         
Authoritative Authority

         
Sly Sincerity

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 7 Scarcity: The Rule of the Few

     
Less Is Best and Loss Is Worst

         
Limited Numbers

         
Time Limits

     
Psychological Reactance

         
Adult Reactance: Love, Guns, and Suds

         
Censorship

     
Optimal Conditions

         
New Scarcity: Costlier Cookies and Civil Conflict

         
Competition for Scarce Resources: Foolish Fury

     
Defense

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

CHAPTER 8 Instant Influence: Primitive Consent for an Automatic Age

     
Primitive Automaticity

     
Modern Automaticity

     
Shortcuts Shall Be Sacred

     
Summary

     
Study Questions

     
References

     
Index

     
Credits

About the Author

 

Robert B. Cialdini is Regents’ Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University, where he has also been named Graduate Distinguished Research Professor. He received undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate training in psychology from the University of Wisconsin, the University of North Carolina, and Columbia University, respectively. He is past president of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology.

He attributes his long-standing interest in the intricacies of social influence to the fact that he was raised in an entirely Italian family, in a predominantly Polish neighborhood, in a historically German city (Milwaukee), in an otherwise rural state.

Preface

 

The initial version of
Influence
was designed for the popular reader, and as such, an attempt was made to write it in an engaging style. In the subsequent versions, that style is retained, but in addition, I present the research evidence for my statements, recommendations, and conclusions. Although they are dramatized and corroborated through such devices as interviews, quotes, and systematic personal observations, the conclusions of
Influence
are based on controlled, psychological research. This fact allows the reader to feel confident that the book is not “pop” psychology but represents work that is scientifically grounded. The subsequent versions also provide new and updated material, chapter summaries, and study questions to enhance its utility.

A potentially attractive feature of the present version of
Influence
lies in its ability to serve as an enjoyable, practical, yet scientifically documented offering. In a related vein, the book might be seen as a way to demonstrate that, properly presented, what often seems like dry science can actually prove to be lively, useful, and relevant to all readers’ personal lives.

Comment on the Fifth Edition of Influence: Science and Practice

It has been some time since
Influence
was last published. In the interim, some things have happened that deserve a place in this new edition. First, we now know more about the influence process than before. The study of persuasion, compliance, and change has advanced, and the pages that follow have been adapted to reflect that progress. In addition to an overall update of the material, I have devoted special attention to updated coverage of popular culture and new technology, as well as to research on cross-cultural social influence—how the influence process works similarly or differently in various human cultures. I have also expanded a feature that was stimulated by the responses of prior readers.

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