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Authors: Andrés Reséndez

The Other Slavery

BOOK: The Other Slavery
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The Other Slavery
Andrés Reséndez
Mariner Books (2017)

**"A necessary work that occupies a loaded historical landscape . . . An object lesson in the trickle-down horrors of colonialism." —NPR

"Arguably one of the most profound contributions to North American history published since Patricia Nelson Limerick's
Legacy of Conquest
." —
Los Angeles Times
**

Since the time of Columbus, Indian slavery was illegal in much of the American continent. Yet, as Andrés Reséndez illuminates in his myth-shattering
The Other Slavery,
it was practiced for centuries as an open secret. There was no abolitionist movement to protect the tens of thousands of natives who were kidnapped and enslaved by the conquistadors. Reséndez builds the incisive case that it was mass slavery, more than epidemics, that decimated Indian populations across North America. Through riveting new evidence, including testimonies of courageous priests, rapacious merchants, and Indian captives,
The Other Slavery
reveals nothing less than a key missing piece of American history. For over two centuries we have fought over, abolished, and tried to come to grips with African-American slavery. It is time for the West to confront an entirely separate, equally devastating enslavement we have long failed truly to see.

**

Contents

Title Page

Contents

Copyright

Dedication

List of Illustrations

List of Maps

List of Appendixes

Introduction

Caribbean Debacle

Good Intentions

The Trafficker and His Network

The Pull of Silver

The Spanish Campaign

The Greatest Insurrection Against the Other Slavery

Powerful Nomads

Missions, Presidios, and Slaves

Contractions and Expansions

Americans and the Other Slavery

A New Era of Indian Bondage

The Other Slavery and the Other Emancipation

Epilogue

Acknowledgments

Appendixes

Notes

Index

About the Author

Copyright © 2016 by Andrés Reséndez

 

All rights reserved

 

For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to
[email protected]
or to Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 3 Park Avenue, 19th Floor, New York, New York 10016.

 

www.hmhco.com

 

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Names: Reséndez, Andrés.

Title: The other slavery : the uncovered story of Indian enslavement in America / Andrés Reséndez.

Other titles: Uncovered story of Indian enslavement in America

Description: Boston : Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, [2016] Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers:
LCCN
2015037557 |
ISBN
9780547640983 (hardcover)
ISBN
9780544602670 (ebook)

Subjects:
LCSH
: Indian slaves—United States—History. | Slave trade—United States—History. | Indians, Treatment of—United States—History. | Indians of North America—History. | Slavery—United States—History. | Indian slaves—North America—History. | Indians, Treatment of—North America—History. | Slave trade—North America—History. | Slavery—North America—History.

Classification:
LCC
E
98.
S
6
R
47 2016 |
DDC
306.3/620973—dc23

LC
record available at
http://lccn.loc.gov/2015037557

 

Maps and charts by Mapping Specialists, Ltd.

Cover design by Martha Kennedy

Cover photograph © Peter Keil/Gallery Stock

 

v1.0416

 

To my family in California, Mexico, and Finland

List of Illustrations

 

 

 
20

 

Climatic zones of the world, fifth century. Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius,  
In somnium Scipionis expositio; Saturnalia.
Brown University Library, Annmary Brown Collection 356, Providence, Rhode Island.

 

 
31

 

Gold panning, circa 1560. Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo,  
Historia general y natural de las Indias.
Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA, call number mss HM 177, vol. 1, fol. 18v.

 

 
63

 

Brand for “war slaves,” circa 1560. Bernal Díaz,  
Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España.
Courtesy of Vera Elena Reséndez.

 

 
63

 

Brand for “ransomed slaves,” circa 1560. Bernal Díaz,  
Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España.
Courtesy of Vera Elena Reséndez.

 

 
64

 

Indian slaves as tribute, 1531.  
Codex Huejotzinco.
Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Gift of Edward Stephen Harkness, 1928 (2.7, 3.7).

 

 
69

 

The war of the mountaintops, circa 1562.  
Codex Telleriano-Remensis.
Courtesy of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Codex Telleriano-Remensis ID/Cote: MEXICAIN 385, fol. 46r entier.

 

 
88

 

Nueva Galicia and the Indian wars, 1550. Courtesy of Spain, Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sport, Archive of the Indies, MP-México, 560. 

 

 
101

 

The Spanish peso as a global currency. Courtesy of Coinman62,  
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Philip_V_Coin.jpg
.

 

 
108

 

Ore carriers, 1905. Reproduced from T. A. Rickard’s  
Journeys of Observation,
San Francisco, 1907.

 

 
126

 

Portrait of King Philip IV, 1623–1624.  
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez,
Portrait of King Philip IV (Retrato del Rey Felipe IV), 1623–24. Oil on canvas, 24⅜ x 19¼ inches. Courtesy of the Meadows Museum, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Algur H. Meadows Collection, MM.67.23.

 

 
130

 

Sor María de Ágreda preaching to the Indians of New Mexico. Woodcut by Antonio de Castro, 1730. Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library, Brown University. 

 

 
154

 

Hopi runners, 1919. Courtesy of the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution (N27741) and The Hopi Tribe. 

 

 
173

 

Map of northern Mexico by José de Urrutia, 1769. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division,  
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g4410.ct000539
.

 

 
201

 

Drawing of Seri Indians, 1692. Courtesy of The Roman Jesuit Archives, Rome, Italy, Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu, Bohemia 108 (Grandi formatti, cassetto 1, doc. 27). 

 

 
234

 

Geronimo, circa 1880s. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by A. F. Randall or Ben Wittick,  
http://loc .gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a37017/
.

 

 
243

 

Canyon de Chelly, 1873. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Photograph by Timothy H. O’Sullivan,  
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a19802
.

 

 
248

 

Ranch scene in Monterey, California. A65.43, Alfred Sully,  
Monterey, California Rancho Scene,
circa 1849. Watercolor on paper, 8 x 10.75 inches. Oakland Museum of California, Kahn Collection.

 

 
254

 

Austin McLain playing the violin, circa 1895. California State University, Chico, Meriam Library Special Collections, SC #9501. 

 

 
275

 

Ute prisoners, 1850. Reproduced from Howard Stansbury’s  
Exploration and Survey of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake of Utah,
Philadelphia, 1852.

 

 
283

 

Albert H. Pfeiffer. Courtesy of the Palace of the Governors Photo Archives (NMHM/DCA), neg. no. 045628. 

 

 
308

 

Senator Charles Sumner, circa 1865. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, photo by Mathew Brady,  
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpbh.00477
.

 

 
311

 

Barboncito, circa 1866. Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives, neg. no. 55766. 

 

 
318

 

Padrone supervising cranberry pickers in New Jersey, 1938. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, photo by Arthur Rothstein,  
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsa.8a10356
.

List of Maps

All commissioned maps rendered by Mapping Specialists, Ltd., Fitchburg, Wisconsin.

 

 

 
27

 

Española at the Time of Columbus 

 

 
38

 

Slaving Expeditions of the Caribbean, 1510–1540 

 

 
79

 

The Cape Verde Islands and the Slave Trade 

 

 
82

 

Pánuco and Northern Mexico at the Time of Carvajal 

 

 
102

 

Mexico’s Silver Mines 

 

 
133

 

Major Slaving Grounds of the Spanish Empire in the Seventeenth Century 

 

 
151

 

The Pueblo World of the Seventeenth Century 

 

 
170

 

Slaving Corridors and Indian Rebellions in the 1680s 

 

 
178

 

The Comanchería 

 

 
187

 

Ute Territory and Range 

 

 
192

 

The Old Spanish Trail 

 

 
199

 

Presidial Line in Northern Mexico 

 

 
202

 

Seri Homeland and Range 

 

 
220

 

Comanche Raiding into Mexico/courtesy of Pekka Hämäläinen 

 

 
232

 

Geronimo’s World 

 

 
267

 

Mormon Migration, 1830–1847 

 

 
291

 

The Long Walk 

BOOK: The Other Slavery
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ads

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