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Authors: Temple Grandin,Richard Panek

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The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum (29 page)

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Notes

1. The Meanings of Autism

 

[>]
   A few years earlier: John Donvan and Caren Zucker, “Autism’s First Child,”
Atlantic,
October 2010.

[>]
   that 1943 paper: Leo Kanner, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact,”
Nervous Child
2 (1943): 217–50.

[>]
   a 1949 follow-up: Leo Kanner, “Problems of Nosology and Psychodynamics in Early Childhood Autism,”
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
19, no. 3 (1949): 416–26.

[>]
   interview in
Time
: “Medicine: The Child Is Father,”
Time,
July 25, 1960,
http://autismedsp5310s20f10.pbworks.com/f/Time-The+Child+Is+Father.pdf.

[>]
   “misquoted often”:
http://www.autism-help.org/points-refrigerator-mothers.htm
.

[>]
   “If Temple doesn’t”: Eustacia Cutler,
Thorn in My Pocket: Temple Grandin’s Mother Tells the Family Story
(Arlington, TX: Future Horizons, 2004).

[>]
footnote: Richard Pollak,
The Creation of Dr. B: A Biography of Bruno Bettelheim
(New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997).

[>]
   several standard tests: Temple Grandin, “My Experiences as an Autistic Child and Review of Selected Literature,”
Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry
13, no. 3 (1984): 144–74.

[>]
  This reversal happened: Roy Richard Grinker,
Unstrange Minds: Remapping the World of Autism
(New York: Basic Books, 2007).

[>]
published a paper: D. L. Rosenhan, “On Being Sane in Insane Places,”
Science
179, no. 4070 (January 19, 1973): 250–58.

[>]
   A 1996 study: Lynn Waterhouse et al., “Diagnosis and Classification in Autism,”
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
26, no. 1 (1996): 59–86.

[>]
   Lorna Wing: Lorna Wing, “Asperger’s Syndrome: A Clinical Account,”
Psychological Medicine
11 (1981): 115–30.

[>]
   Columbia University study: Marissa King and Peter Bearman, “Diagnostic Change and the Increased Prevalence of Autism,”
International Journal of Epidemiology
38, no. 5 (October 2009): 1224–34.

[>]
   Columbia University analysis: Ka-Yuet Liu, Marissa King, and Peter Bearman, “Social Influence and the Autism Epidemic,”
American Journal of Sociology
115, no. 5 (March 2010): 1387–1434.

[>]
   another reason: Grinker,
Unstrange Minds
.

[>]
   (ADDM) Network:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/addm.html
.

[>]
   “There’s a long”: Jeffrey S. Anderson interview.

 

2. Lighting Up the Autistic Brain

 

[>]
   Thanks to a scan
:
Eric Courchesne et al., “Cerebellar Hypoplasia and Hyperplasia in Infantile Autism,”
Lancet
343, no. 8888 (January 1, 1994): 63–64.

[>]
   I found one: N. Shinoura et al., “Impairment of Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Plays a Role in Visual Memory Disturbance,”
Neurocase
13, no. 2 (April 2007): 127–30.

[>]
   “The entorhinal cortex”:
http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/ucla-scientists-boost-memory-by-228557.aspx
.

[>]
   The latest estimate: Sarah DeWeerdt, “Study Links Brain Size to Regressive Autism,” Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, December 12, 2011,
http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/news/2011/study-links-brain-size-to-regressive-autism
.

[>]
one review article: Nancy J. Minshew and Timothy A. Keller, “The Nature of Brain Dysfunction in Autism: Functional Brain Imaging Studies,”
Current Opinion in Neurology
23, no. 2 (April 2010): 124–30.

[>]
   “Anatomically, these kids”: Joy Hirsch interview.

[>]
told USA Today: Liz Szabo, “Autism Science Is Moving ‘Stunningly Fast,’” USA Today, April 30, 2012,
http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/story/2012-04-08/Autism-science-research-moving-faster/54134028/1
.

[>]
   2011 fMRI study: Naomi B. Pitskel et al., “Brain Mechanisms for Processing Direct and Averted Gaze in Individuals with Autism,”
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
41, no. 12 (December 2011): 1686–93.

[>]
   highly influential paper: Marcel Adam Just et al., “Cortical Activation and Synchronization During Sentence Comprehension in High-Functioning Autism: Evidence of Underconnectivity,”
Brain
127, no. 8 (August 2004): 1811–21.

[>]
a 2012 study: M. E. Vissers et al., “Brain Connectivity and High Functioning Autism: A Promising Path of Research That Needs Refined Models, Methodological Convergence, and Stronger Behavioral Links,”
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
36, no. 1 (January 2012): 604–25.

[>]
   a 2009 autism study: H. C. Hazlett et al., “Teasing Apart the Heterogeneity of Autism: Same Behavior, Different Brains in Toddlers with Fragile X Syndrome and Autism,”
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
1, no. 1 (March 2009): 81–90.

[>]
   a study her group conducted: Grace Lai et al., “Speech Stimulation During Functional MR Imaging as a Potential Indicator of Autism,”
Radiology
260, no. 2 (August 2011): 521–30.

[>]
   a major study: Jeffrey S. Anderson et al., “Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification of Autism,”
Brain
134 (December 2011): 3742 –54.

[>]
   A 2011 MRI study: A. Elnakib et al., “Autism Diagnostics by Centerline-Based Shape Analysis of the Corpus Callosum,”
IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro
(March 30, 2011): 1843–46.

[>]
   another MRI study from 2011: Lucina Q. Uddin et al., “Multivariate Searchlight Classification of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children and Adolescents with Autism,”
Biological Psychiatry
70, no. 9 (November 2011): 833–41.

[>]
   a 2012 DTI study: Jason J. Wolff et al., “Differences in White Matter Fiber Tract Development Present from 6 to 24 Months in Infants with Autism,”
American Journal of Psychiatry
169, no. 6 (June 2012): 589–600.

[>]
   “They came to me”: Walter Schneider interview.

[>]
   posted a paper: S. S. Shin et al., “High-Definition Fiber Tracking for Assessment of Neurological Deficit in a Case of Traumatic Brain Injury: Finding, Visualizing, and Interpreting Small Sites of Damage,”
Journal of Neurosurgery
116, no. 5 (May 2012): 1062–69.

[>]
   my book
Emergence
: Temple Grandin and Margaret M. Scariano,
Emergence
(New York: Warner Books, 1996).

[>]
   “It really, really”: Virginia Hughes, “Movement During Brain Scans May Lead to Spurious Patterns,” Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, January 16, 2012,
http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/news/2012/movement-during-brain-scans-may-lead-to-spurious-patterns
.

[>]
   an article in
Science:
Greg Miller, “Growing Pains for fMRI,”
Science
320 (June 13, 2008): 1412–14.

 

3. Sequencing the Autistic Brain

 

[>]
   “The human genome”: Gina Kolata, “Study Discovers Road Map of DNA,”
New York Times
, September 6, 2012.

[>]
   The article: Amartya Sanyal et al., “The Long-Range Interaction Landscape of Gene Promoters,”
Nature
489 (September 6, 2012): 109–13.

[>]
   the first study of autism in twins: S. Folstein and M. Rutter, “Infantile Autism: A Genetic Study of 21 Twin Pairs,”
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
18, no. 4 (September 1977): 297–321.

[>]
   A follow-up study: A. Bailey et al., “Autism as a Strongly Genetic Disorder: Evidence from a British Twin Study,”
Psychological Medicine
25, no. 1 (January 1995): 63–77.

[>]
   Autism Genome Project, or AGP:
http://www.autismspeaks.org/science/initiatives/autism-genome-project/first-findings
.

[>]
came to an end:
http://www.autismspeaks.org/about-us/press-releases/autism-speaks-and-worlds-leading-autism-experts-announce-publication-autism-
.

[>]
a paper in
Nature Genetics:
Peter Szatmari et al., “Mapping Autism Risk Loci Using Genetic Linkage and Chromosomal Rearrangements,”
Nature Genetics
39, no. 3 (March 2007): 319–28.

[>]
   a 2007 study: Jonathan Sebat et al., “Strong Association of De Novo Copy Number Mutations with Autism,”
Science
316, no. 5823 (April 20, 2007): 445–49.

[>]
   an end, in 2010:
http://www.autismspeaks.org/about-us/press-releases/new-autism-genes-discovered-autism-speaks-and-worlds-leading-autism-experts
.

[>]
   “We found many”:
http://geschwindlab.neurology.ucla.edu/index.php/in-the-news/16-news/88-dna-scan-for-familial-autism-finds-variants-that-disrupt-gene-activity-in-autistic-kids-
.

[>]
   an article in
Science:
Matthew W. State and Nenad Šestan, “The Emerging Biology of Autism Spectrum Disorders,”
Science
337 (September 2012): 1301–3.

[>]
   “The key is trying”: G. Bradley Schaefer interview.

[>]
   One of those studies: Stephen Sanders et al., “De Novo Mutations Revealed by Whole-Exome Sequencing Are Strongly Associated with Autism,”
Nature
485 (May 10, 2012): 237–41.

[>]
   At the same time, another study: Brian J. O’Roak et al., “Sporadic Autism Exomes Reveal a Highly Interconnected Protein Network of De Novo Mutations,”
Nature
485 (May 10, 2012): 246–50.

[>]
Then a third study: Benjamin M. Neale et al., “Patterns and Rates of Exonic De Novo Mutations in Autism Spectrum Disorders,”
Nature
485 (May 10, 2012): 242–45.

[>]
   a paper in
Nature:
Augustine Kong et al., “Rate of De Novo Mutations and the Importance of Father’s Age to Disease Risk,”
Nature
488 (August 2012): 471– 75.

[>]
“The development of the brain”: Deborah Rudacille, “Family Sequencing Study Boosts Two-Hit Model of Autism,” Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, May 15, 2011,
http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/news/2011/family-sequencing-study-boosts-two-hit-model-of-autism
.

[>]
a 2012 analysis: Claire S. Leblond et al., “Genetic and Functional Analyses of SHANK2 Mutations Suggest a Multiple Hit Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders,”
PLoS Genetics
8, no. 2 (February 2012): e1002521, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002521.

[>]
   “For these patients”: Virginia Hughes, “SHANK2 Study Bolsters ‘Multi-Hit’ Gene Model of Autism,” Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, February 13, 2012,
http://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/news/2012/shank2-study-bolsters-multi-hit-gene-model-of-autism
.

[>]
   “It is widely accepted”:
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/25624
.

[>]
   “We expect to find”:
http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/24693
.

[>]
   Hertz-Picciotto says: Irva Hertz-Picciotto interview.

[>]
The first CHARGE study: R. J. Schmidt et al., “Prenatal Vitamins, One-Carbon Metabolism Gene Variants, and Risk for Autism,”
Epidemiology
22, no. 4 (July 2011): 476–85.

[>]
   Another CHARGE study: H. E. Volk et al., “Residential Proximity to Freeways and Autism in the CHARGE Study,”
Environmental Health Perspectives
119, no. 6 (June 2011): 873–77.

[>]
   A third CHARGE study: P. Krakowiak et al., “Maternal Metabolic Conditions and Risk for Autism and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders,”
Pediatrics
129, no. 5 (May 2012): 1121–28.

[>]
   another 2012 paper: J. F. Shelton et al., “Tipping the Balance of Autism Risk: Potential Mechanisms Linking Pesticides and Autism,”
Environmental Health Perspectives
120, no. 7 (April 2012): 944–51.

[>]
an editorial: Philip J. Landrigan et al., “A Research Strategy to Discover the Environmental Causes of Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities,”
Environmental Health Perspectives
120, no. 7 (July 2012): a258–a260.

[>]
a safety alert:
http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/Safety AlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm261610.htm
.

[>]
   two studies: Miriam E. Tucker, “Valproate Exposure Associated with Autism, Lower IQ,” Internal Medicine News Digital Network, December 5, 2011,
http://www.internalmedicinenews.com/specialty-focus/women-s-health/single-article-page/valproate-exposure-associated-with-autism-lower-iq
.

[>]
“An estimated six”: Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, June 5, 2012,
https://sfari.org/news-and-opinion/blog/2012/valproate-fate
.

[>]
The first study: Lisa A. Croen et al., “Antidepressant Use During Pregnancy and Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders,”
Archives of General Psychiatry
68, no. 11 (November 2011): 1104–12.

[>]
   Along comes a study: A. J. Wakefield et al., “Ileal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,”
Lancet
351, no. 9103 (February 28, 1998): 637–41.

[>]
The Lancet
retracts: Editors of
The
Lancet,
“Retraction—‘Ileal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,’”
Lancet
375, no. 9713 (February 6, 2010): 445.

[>]
   more compelling example: David Dobbs, “The Orchid Children,”
New Scientist,
January 28, 2012.

BOOK: The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum
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